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26015
“Darwin's Errors Pt. 2”
by fbns@wayoflife.org. - David Cloud   
February 20th, 2015

In the late 19th century, the evolutionary doctrine of Charles Darwin was thought to have disproven the Bible. This was a great turning point in history, and each quarter century since then has witnessed an increase in skepticism and open animosity toward God and His Word. Today it is widely assumed that the Bible is filled with myth and scientific blunders while Darwin has been authenticated. 

The truth is quite the opposite. Scientific research since Darwin has authenticated the Bible and discredited Darwin. In reality, it is Darwin's writings that are filled with myth and scientific blunders. 

 It can be argued that Darwin couldn't have known scientific facts that weren't yet discovered in his day and that he is not to be blamed for the blunders that appear in his writings, but that is not the point. The point is that Darwin's writings are filled with scientific blunders, whereas the Bible, which was written thousands of years earlier, has no such blunders. This is clear evidence of its divine inspiration.

Consider some of Darwin's errors:

GEMMULES

Darwin attempted to account for evolutionary change through acquired characteristics by the invention of something he called "gemmules" (also called granules, plastitudes, and pangenes). This idea appeared in his 1868 book, The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, in the chapter "Provisional Hypothesis of Pangensis." 

According to Darwin, gemmules are new units of information, particles of inheritance, that are formed when the creature is affected by its environment. The gemmules are then carried in the bloodstream to the reproductive organs, accumulate in the germ cells, and are passed on to the offspring and, lo and behold, you have evolution.  

Darwin said:

"It is universally admitted that the cells or units of the body increase by self-devision, or proliferation, retaining the same nature, and that they ultimately become converted into the various tissues and substances of the body. But besides this means of increase I assume that the units throw off minute granules which are dispersed throughout the whole system; that these, when supplied with proper nutriment, multiply by self-division, and are ultimately developed into units like those from which they were originally derived. These granules may be called gemmules. They are collected from all parts of the system to constitute the sexual elements, and their development in the next generation forms the new being; but they are likewise capable of transmission in a dormant state to future generations and may then be developed" (The Variation of Plants and Animals, 1868).

Dr. Duane Gish comments:

"Today we know that inheritance is controlled by the genes found solely in the germ cells (the eggs, or ova, and the spermatozoa). Only alterations in the genes of the germ cells are inheritable. No such thing as a 'gemmule' is formed, and acquired characteristics are not inherited.

"Hundreds of thousands of genes are present in the nucleus of every cell of the higher animals. Each gene consists of a long strand of several hundred to several thousand subunits, linked together like the links of a chain. The particular type of complex chemical which constitutes a gene is called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. ... 

"Each characteristic is influenced by at least two genes. The genes of this gene pair are called alleles. One such gene is inherited from each of the parents. Thus, the egg and sperm each have a single set of genes. When fertilization occurs, these two sets of genes combine. The segregation and recombination of the genes which occur during production of the germ cells produce sperm and eggs with a tremendous variety of different gene combinations. These sperm and egg cells in turn, depending upon which sperm fertilizes which egg, can be combined in a great variety of ways. The result is the tremendous variability that we see within each species. 

"The genes are ordinarily very stable. A particular gene (in the form of its successors) may exist many thousands of years without alteration in its structure. Very rarely, however, the chemical structure of a gene does undergo a change. Such a change is called a mutation. Mutations may be caused by chemicals, X-rays, ultraviolet light, cosmic rays, and other causes. Some may occur during cell reproduction due to copying errors. 

"Very often a mutation proves to be lethal, and they are almost universally harmful. ... It is doubtful that of all the mutations that have been seen to occur, a single one can definitely be said to have increased the viability of the affected plant or animal" (Gish, The Fossil Record Still Says No, pp. 36, 37). 

Not only was Darwin grossly wrong about the existence of "gemmules," the truth, it turns out, devastates his evolutionary doctrine.  

Modern genetics has taught us the following things:

First, there is great potential for variety and adaptability within each creature, but there are also impassable barriers between kinds of creatures. Breeding has produced all sorts of dogs, but it has never surpassed the kind barrier and produced something other than a dog, or even a part-dog part-something else. A vast variety of roses has been cultivated, but a rose bush has never been turned into stalk of corn. 

Second, genetic mutations, instead of being the pathway of evolutionary change from species to species, are both exceedingly rare and overwhelmingly harmful. 

To prove his doctrine, Darwin needed a "gemmule," but what his sons in the Darwinian faith have discovered is just the opposite. Modern genetics destroys not only the idea of the gemmule but also the doctrine of evolution itself.

THE EMBRYO'S TOE

In The Descent of Man, Darwin made the following statement:

"The great toe, as Prof. Owen remarks, 'which forms the fulcrum when standing or walking, is perhaps the most characteristic peculiarity in the human structure;' but in an embryo, about an inch in length, Prof. Wyman found 'that the great toe was shorter than the others, and, instead of being parallel to them, projected at an angle from the side of the foot, thus corresponding with the permanent condition of this part in the quadrumana.'"

Darwin was trying to prove that humans go through evolutionary stages in the womb, but he was dead wrong.

Shem Dharampaul, M.D., FRCPC, debunks this myth: 

"A one inch embryo is just over 9 weeks old. At this point in development, the fingers and toes are practically fully separated, and appear as they do in the newborn. In the weeks leading up to this stage, a rounded limb bud becomes elongated into the characteristic thigh, leg and foot of the fully developed limb. The flat, rounded disc of the foot plate undergoes a number of visible morphologic changes, as a result of innumerable invisible underlying processes. At about the sixth week, a poorly understood process named apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs in the tissues in between the future toes, to reveal the developing toes. Initially, when the grooves between the toes are short, the toes appear fan shaped with five rays, and the third toe is the longest, being in the middle of the foot plate. The statement that the great toe is shorter than the others is incorrect. In any case, the length of these toes are not significant, as there exists a great diversity in the toe length among different human population groups. Additionally, a review of multiple images of 9 week old fetuses show that the great toe does not significantly project at an angle from the side of the foot. ... 

"To suggest that the human foot goes through a stage of development that mirrors the adult stage of a quadrumana (an obsolete division of the primates referring to a primate with four hands), is inaccurate..." (e-mail from Dr. Dharapaul to David Cloud, December 20, 2010). 

A picture of a human embryo's foot at about 9 weeks compared with the feet of apes proves that Darwin was wrong. The ape's foot is always uniquely apelike, with the big toe sticking out to the side, whereas the human foot is always distinctively human. 

The following chart from the medical school textbook Before We Are Born (Keith L. Moore, 1989, page 235), shows the development of the human hand and foot in the womb. It is obvious that the human foot is not apelike at any stage.

Darwin was wrong about the toe of the human embryo. 

RECAPITULATION

Darwin believed in the doctrine of recapitulation, which claims that evolutionary history plays itself out in the development of the embryo. He mentioned this in On the Origin of Species, as follows: 

"Thus the embryo comes to be left as a sort of picture, preserved by nature, of the ancient and less modified condition of each animal."

"Embryology rises greatly in interest, when we thus look at the embryo as a picture, more or less obscured, of the common parent-form of each great class of animals."

Recapitulation was given its fullest development by Darwin's German disciple Ernst Haeckel.  According to recapitulation, each creature repeats or recapitulates the entire alleged evolutionary history. Thus, the human embryo passes through various stages from a single cell to a fish to an amphibian to a reptile to a mammal to an ape to a human. 

Haeckel summarized this "law" with the saying "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny." Ontogeny refers to the growth of the embryo, whereas phylogeny refers to evolutionary history.

Haeckel "proved" the doctrine with a series of animal embryos lined up beside the human embryo at various stages of growth. 

The influence of the embryo chart has been massive. It has appeared in countless textbooks and museums throughout the world for over a century. Carl Werner, M.D., testifies that he was confronted with Haeckel's embryo chart in his first class in medical school in 1977 and this convinced him that evolution is true.

"These drawings were extremely compelling to me, especially the 'fact' that humans had gills and a tail. After this lecture, I found myself rapidly accepting evolution" (Evolution: The Grand Experiment, Vol. 2, p. 2).

The problem is that recapitulation is a scientific fraud. 

Haeckel fabricated his embryo chart. He mislabeled embryos; he changed the size of embryos; he deleted parts; he added parts; he changed parts. Haeckel also brazenly ignored every facet of embryology that disproved his proposition.

Haeckel's embryo fraud was exposed early on by Wilhelm His, Sr., professor of anatomy at the university of Leipzig. Ludwig Rutimeyer, a professor at the University of Basel, also brought the fabrications to the attention of the university at Jena, where Haeckel worked. Rutimeyer called the drawings "a sin against scientific truthfulness." In spite of this exposure, Haeckel continued as a professor at Jena for another 30 years and continued to promote his evolutionary deception far and wide. The lying embryo chart continued to be published in his popular books.

In 1915 Haeckel's deception was publicized in the book Haeckel's Frauds and Forgeries by Joseph Assmuth and Ernest Hull, which cited 19 authorities, but this carefully documented work was largely ignored by Darwinian scientists and educators in their haste to prove evolution and disprove the Bible.

In the late 1990s, a team led by Michael Richardson, embryologist at St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, did extensive research into the embryo to test Haeckel's chart. Richardson gathered an international team of scientists who examined and photographed embryos of 39 different species at stages comparable to those depicted in Haeckel's chart. Richardson concluded that Haeckel was "an embryonic liar." In a 1997 interview with Nigel Hawkes, Richardson said,

'THIS IS ONE OF THE WORST CASES OF SCIENTIFIC FRAUD. It's shocking to find that somebody one thought was a great scientist was deliberately misleading. It makes me angry … What he [Haeckel] did was to take a human embryo and copy it, pretending that the salamander and the pig and all the others looked the same at the same stage of development. They don't … These are fakes" (Nigel Hawkes interview with Richardson, The Times, Aug. 11, 1997, p. 14).

Charles Darwin was wrong about embryonic recapitulation

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